Freeman, T. M., Leonard, L., & Lipari, J. (2007). The social contextual nature of resiliency in schools. In D. M. Davis (Ed.), Resiliency considered policy implications of the resiliency movement(pp. 15-30). Charlotte, North Carolina: Information Age Publishing.
This theoretical/discussion chapter reviews empirical research on youth resilience in the context of middle school and high school based on an ecological systems framework. In the ecological framework, positive and caring relationships with peers, teachers and parents, positive high expectations for all students, and opportunities to participate and contribute, are argued to be major factors that constitute student resilience. The article also outlines what policy makers, administrators, teachers, parents and community members can do to support students’ resilience.